FAQs On Radiology

Q- What is X-Ray ?
Ans- An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. At Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, we use fully digital x-ray techniques.
Special X-Ray Investigations – Fluoroscopy imaging facility is available that helps obtaining real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. We facilitate the following fluoroscopy tests :
* I.V.P.
* Barium Swallow
* Small Bowel Enema/ Barium Meal Follow Through
* Barium Enema
* HSG/ Sinogram( fistulogram) / T- tube cholangiogram/ Cologram/ Sialogram
* Head up tilt table test
* PTBD and other fluoroscopy guided procedures

Q- What is Mammography ?
Ans- Mammography is the process of using low-dose amplitude-X-rays to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic as well as a screening tool. Mammography helps in early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or micro calcifications.

Q- What is Ultra Sound ?
Ans- Ultrasound is a high frequency sound that travels freely through fluid and soft tissues in the body and helps to:
* Monitor the growth of an unborn child, and check for abnormalities.
* Detect abnormalities of heart structures such as the heart valves.
* Help to diagnose problems of the liver, gallbladder (such as gallstones), pancreas, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, ovaries, testes, kidneys, bladder and breast.
* Detect abnormal widening of blood vessels (aneurysms)

Q- What is CT-Scan ?
Ans- CT or CAT scans are special x-ray tests that produce cross-sectional images of the body using x-rays and a computer. These images allow the radiologist, a medical doctor who specializes in images of the body, to look at the inside of the body just as you would look at the inside of a loaf of bread by slicing it. It provides a highly detailed look at many different parts of the body.
CT scan can be conducted for any part of the body. CT scans of internal organs, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater clarity and reveal more details than regular x-ray exams and helps radiologists to easily diagnose problems such as cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, trauma and musculoskeletal disorders.
64-Slice CT Angiogram
An “angiogram” generally refers to a medical imaging study that is used to look at arteries in the body. The purpose of an angiogram is usually to determine if there is narrowing in arteries or some other disease that may impair blood flow. 64 Slice CT angiograms refer to angiograms completed using computed tomography technology. These studies are increasing in use because of the excellent image quality.

Q- What is MRI Scan ?
Ans- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed pictures of the inside of your body. MRI scans can show muscles, joints, bone marrow, blood vessels, nerves and other structures within your body. An MRI scan can create clear pictures of most parts of the body.

Q- What is Nuclear Medicine ?
Ans- Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials, or radiopharmaceuticals, to examine organ function and structure. This branch of radiology is often used to help diagnose and treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease, such as thyroid cancer. Some of the more common tests include the following :
* renal scans – used to examine the kidneys and to detect any abnormalities, such as tumors or obstruction of the renal blood flow.
* thyroid scans – used to evaluate thyroid function.
* bone scans – used to evaluate any degenerative and/or arthritic changes in the joints, to detect bone diseases and tumors, and/or to determine the cause of bone pain or inflammation.
* gallium scans – used to diagnose active infectious and/or inflammatory diseases, tumors, and abscesses.
* heart scans – used to identify abnormal blood flow to the heart, to determine the extent of the damage of the heart muscle after a heart attack, and/or to measure heart function.
* brain scans – used to investigate problems within the brain and/or in the blood circulation to the brain.
* breast scans – often used in conjunction with mammograms to locate cancerous tissue in the breast.
Pet Scan
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly specialized imaging technique using short-lived radiolabeled substances to produce powerful images of the body’s biological function.
PET is especially useful in the context of cancer because it can detect metastatic tumours that may not be visualized by other imaging techniques. It is also being increasingly used not only as a cancer diagnostic tool, but also to help physicians design the most beneficial therapies.

Q- What is Dexa Scan ?
Ans- Dual Energy X-ray Absortiometry, or DEXA scanning, is currently the most widely used method to measure bone mineral density.
Interventional Radiology is a medical specialty that uses image-guided, minimally invasive diagnostic and treatment techniques that are often an alternative to surgery. We utilize radiologic guidance, comprised of fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound, to perform an ever-growing spectrum of minimally invasive procedures throughout the body.
The Indraprastha Apollo Hospital’s interventional physicians are highly trained in imaging, radiation safety, the performance of medical procedures, and patient management. We utilize the most up-do-date technology to perform the highest level of vascular and interventional radiologic services and provide safe and effective patient care.

Q- What is DSA ?
Ans- Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) is a type of fluoroscopy technique used in interventional radiology to clearly visualize blood vessels in a bony or dense soft tissue environment. DSA is primarily used to image blood vessels. The Allura Xper FD20 installed at Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals has the capability to perform routine as well as very complex procedures, such as 3D RA, Xper CT, Xper guide, Vaso CT and CT-MR fusion with DSA.
The instrument’s capability, coupled with the clinical skills of our highly qualified experts makes complex vascular interventions seem simple. Every care is taken to provide best possible treatment and deliver services with a human touch.
List of interventional procedures performed in DSA lab are :
* Diagnostic Angiogram
* Neurointerventional procedures
1. Endovsacular treatment of cerebral aneurysm : Elective & Emergent
2. Embolization of intracranial/extracranial AV malformations.
3. Dural AV fistulae
4. Stroke: Intra-arterial thrombolysis & mechanical thrombectomy
5. Atherosclerotic disease: intracranial & extracranial arterial stenting
6. Trauma Interventions
7. Dural sinus thrombolysis and stenting
8. Vein of Galen Malformation embolization
9. Carotid – cavernous fistula
10. Pre – op embolization of vascular tumors
11. Diagnostic angiograms
12. Spine interventions: AVM embolization
13. Pain management
* Body interventional procedures
1. Diagnostic Aniograms, Angioplasty & Stenting
2. Diagnostic Venograms, Plasty & Stenting
3. Embolization: UAE, BAE, Pre-OP tumor embolization, GI bleed, Pelvic trauma
4. Arterial and venous thrombolysis: Peripheral
5. Dialysis AV Fistula / Graft maintenance
6. IVC Filter Placement and Retrieval
7. TIPS, BRTO & Portal vein embolization
8. Chemoembolization (TACE) & Radioembolizations (Sir-Spheres & Theraspheres)
9. PTC, PTBD, Biliary Stenting
10. Varicose Venous Ablation: Laser/Radiofrequency
11. Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty
12. EVAR (Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair)
13. TEVAR (Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair)

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